Academic Writing: Tips 学术写作:技巧

Grammar and Lexis 语法和词汇

  1. Don’t use pronouns (ex: I, you, we, he, she, me) 不要使用人称代词
  2. Don’t use phrases, expressions, or idioms (ex: Don’t use ‘Every coin has 2 sides’ or ‘Every sword has two edges’) 不要使用习语
  3. Don’t use phrasal verbs (ex: Don’t use ‘go up’, use ‘increase, raise, elevate’; ‘getting worse’ change to ‘worsen’ to ‘deteriorate’) 不要使用动词词组
  4. Avoid slang and colloquialisms (spoken language) 不要使用俗语和俚语等口语化的语言
  5. Don’t repeat vocabulary (ex: more and more, less and less, higher and higher) 不要重复使用词汇
  6. Use synonyms (ex: students- try learners, pupils, under/postgraduates or ex: demonstrate, illustrate, show, reveals) 使用近义词
  7. Be concise! Use less words to express your meaning 精炼地表达意思

“Nowadays people are sitting in front of their computer and playing games and relaxing” (too long)

“Online recreation/leisure is a well-recognized trend”

  1. Be objective and impersonal 请客观
  2. Avoid emotive language (ex: sadly, unfortunately, awfully, interestingly, perfect, happily, surprisingly, luckily) 避免情绪化的表达
  3. Use hedging strategies (ex: there seems to be, there may be, there tends to be) 使用对冲策略
  4. Don’t use ‘thing’ (be specific, or say ‘factor, issue, point, consideration, aspect’) 不要使用“一件事”,而要使用更具体的描述
  5. Don’t use ‘etc., and so forth, or and so on, namely’ 不要使用等等
  6. Avoid generalisations e.g. everybody, people always. 不要太宽泛
  7. No contractions (ex: can’t, don’t should be cannot and do not) 不要缩写
  8. Less simple sentences - use more complex structures (for example: combine sentences using that, which, and, because, since, so, as, etc.) 使用多层结构
Before After
Big - - > serious, large, important, considerable, great, significant, vast, monumental
A lot - - > a number of, many, a great amount of, a wide range of, the majority, numerous
Good and bad - - > strengths and weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages, benefits and drawbacks, positives and negatives
Like - - > such as, for instance
About/roughly - - > approximately