Academic Writing: Abstract 学术写作:摘要

Basic Profile 基本信息

  • Using the present tense to describe general facts and interpretations that have been and are currently true, including the prevailing explanation for the social phenomenon under study.
  • Using the present tense to describe the methods, the findings, the arguments, and the implications of the findings from their new research study
  • Using the past tense to describe previous research.
  • 使用现在时描述一般事实或者已经被证明正确的解释,例如对于社会现象的被广泛接受的解释
  • 使用现在时描述方法,发现,论点和研究意义等
  • 使用过去时描述过去的研究
Common Elements checklist 常见要素清单
1. the context or background information for your research; the general topic under study; the specific topic of your research 研究的背景信息;普适但具体的研究话题
2. Problem: the central questions or statement of the problem your research addresses 研究探讨的中心问题和论据
3. what’s already known about this question, what previous research has done or shown 已有信息的总结,例如之前的研究的成果和结论
4. Reasons for writing: the main reason(s), the exigency, the rationale, the goals for your research—Why is it important to address these questions? Are you, for example, examining a new topic? Why is that topic worth examining? Are you filling a gap in previous research? Applying new methods to take a fresh look at existing ideas or data? Resolving a dispute within the literature in your field? . . . 研究的意义包括进行研究的原因,紧迫性,研究目标。例如:为什么需要解决这些问题?为什么这个话题值得研究?先前研究的空白是?是否填补了这些空白?是否基于现有的想法或者数据使用新的方法而产生新的观点?或是解决了之前研究的一些争议?
5. Methodology: your research and/or analytical methods 研究方法和分析方法
6. Results: your main findings, results, or arguments 发现、结果和论点
7. Implications: the significance or implications of your findings or arguments 重要性及其影响


  1. Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper